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Nutrients

For good nutrition on a strict food intolerance diet read introduction of the RPAH Allergy Unit Friendly Food Cookbook Introduction here

Standard Dietary Guidelines recommends for most people 1 – 2 Serves a day (source: eatforhealth.gov.au)

A serve of friendlier allowed foods is

  • 65g cooked lean meat – beef, lamb, veal, goat (about 90-100g raw)
  • 80g cooked chicken (100g raw) – duck can be eaten also, if moderate amines are tolerated.
  • 100g cooked fresh white fish fillet (about 115g raw) – fresh salmon and tuna can also be eaten if moderate amines are tolerated
  • 2 large (120g) eggs
  • 1 cup of cooked or canned legumes such as lentil, chickpeas, split peas, all other legumes can be consumed on a low food chemical diet except fava/broadbean
  • 170g tofu
  • 30g raw cashews or cashew paste

To ensure adequate iron and zinc, about half the serves from this food group should be lean meat.  For those who do not eat animal foods, nuts, legumes (including tofu) can provide some iron and zinc, plus a good mix of plant-based protein. Non meat diets that include milk products, eggs, and legumes can provide all the essential nutrients required for health. Vitamin B12 is only found in animal products and a supplement may be desirable if eating a non-animal diet.

Lean red meat provides a very good source of nutrients, however consumption of greater than 100/120g per day of red meat, which is more than double the recommended amount, is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and renal cancer.  So remember to also eat other foods from this food group. 

There are also many benefits in eating fish.  Consumption of fish more than once a week is associated with a reduced risk of developing dementia in older adults.  Consuming fish at least twice a week has even further benefits with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and age-related macular degeneration in the eyes. Aim for about 2 serves of fish a week

Small amounts of fat should be included in your diet, they are essential to your health. Unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated fats (Animal Fats), and can help improve cholesterol levels, which can decrease your risk of diseases like heart disease and type 2 diabetes

Saturated Fats

Eating greater amounts of saturated fat is linked with an increased risk of heart disease and high blood cholesterol levels. These fats are usually solid at room temperature and are found in the following “allowable foods-

  • Dairy foods – butter, cream, sour cream, full fat milk, soft cheeses
  • Fatty cuts of meats
  • Chicken with skin on (only allowed on a moderate amine diet, for a low diet chicken skin should be removed.

Unsaturated Fats

Unsaturated fats are an important part of a healthy diet. These fats help reduce the risk of heart disease and lower cholesterol levels (among other health benefits) when they replace saturated fats in the diet.

There are two main types of unsaturated fats:

Polyunsaturated fats:

  • omega-3 fats play a role in nerve and brain health, and also helps keep your immune system healthy, and lowers risk of heart disease in adults. Allowable sources of Omega 3 include: fish, oily fish like Salmon is very good and should be eaten if moderate amines are tolerated. Other “allowable” sources include canola oil, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil, tofu, Nuttelex DF Spread and egg yolk
  • omega-6 fats  play an important role in regulating our genes and promoting immune health and blood clotting.  These fats can also help with the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. However, more research is needed to support these health benefits. Sources of are found in some oils such as safflower and sunflower oil and soy beans

Monounsaturated fats:

Canola Oil and cashews are allowable foods that are good sources of monounsaturated fats.

Grains are an important source of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are our main source of energy, however eating too much can cause weight gain and potential blood sugar issues.

Standard Dietary guidelines recommends 6 serves of grains a day for most people, spread out over the day. 4 serves are recommended for young children, 8 – 9 serves are recommended for pregnant women. (source: eatforhealth.gov)

A serve of grains is ….

  • 1 slice (40g) bread white or wholemeal Brumbys bread or other preservative 202 free
  • 1/2 medium roll or flat bread
  • 1/2 cup (75g-120g) ½ cup (75-120g) cooked rice, pasta, noodles, barley, buckwheat, rye , millet, semolina, bulgur or quinoa
  • ½ cup (120g) cooked porridge
  • ²/³ cup (30g) wheat cereal flakes
  • 3 crispbreads like SAO, Cruskits

Most Grains do not contain salicylates, amines, glutamates/MSG if they are free from corn, nuts, seeds, fruit, flavours, preservatives and other additives.

Some grains contain gluten . Gluten is not a problem for people with food chemical sensitivity, but can be a concern if gluten sensitivity is problem, particularly in people with autoimmune gluten sensitivity, ie Celiac Disease.

Wholemeal/wholegrains are healthier than refined grains and are the preferred health optioin. It should be noted however, that some people with very sensitive tummies find refined grains best.

Fruit can provide an array of nutrients, but many fruits are high in salicylates, and also fructose. Which is a sugar that is known to upset many people with sensitive tummies.

The standard dietary guidelines recommends 2 fruits a day. Some people will be able to tolerate this amount, but many people may find they do not.

The only fruit that is negligible in salicylates is peeled pear or pear in syrup, not juice. Fruit juice and dried fruits can be particularly high food chemicals.

The standard dietary guidelines is 5 serves of vegetables a day – where 1 serve is equal to approximately 1/2 cup.

Not all supplements are suitable for people with food chemical sensitivity. These are ones that the RPAH Allergy Unit says should be generally tolerated by people doing the strict food chemical elimination diet challenge.

A diet high in antioxidants may reduce the risk of many diseases (including heart disease and certain cancers). Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body cells and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation.

The protective effect of antioxidants continues to be studied around the world. 

Sources of antioxidants

Plant foods are rich sources of antioxidants. They are most abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as other foods including, wholegrains and some meats, poultry and fish.

The following are foods high in antioxidants but lower in salicyalates, amines and glutamates (CAPITALS are lowest)

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Beta carotene is important in normal growth and development, immune system function, and vision [1,2]. The antioxidant actions of beta-carotene protect cells of the immune system from damage by free radicals [3]

FOOD SOURCES

Suitable for low salicylate, amine and glutamate diet

Contains moderate salicylates (+S) or Moderate Glutamate (+G)

  • Lettuce Fancy (+S)
  • Carrot (+S)
  • Sweet Potato (+S)
  • Peas (+G)
  • Butternut Squash (+S)

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11738275 
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11058719  
[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9665110

Bifidobacteria are a group of bacteria that normally live in the intestines.

WHY IS BIFIBOBACTERIA IMPORTANT?

Bifidobacteria support the gut microflora.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

The human body counts on its normal bacteria such as bifidobacteria to perform several jobs, including breaking down foods, helping the body take in nutrients, and maintaining a healthy gut flora

FOOD SOURCES

Suitable for a low salicylate, amine and glutamate diet

  • Yoghurt (Plain) – if dairy is tolerated

REFERENCES

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224499000333

Also known as Vitamin B7, Vitamin H or Vitamin B8.

WHY IS BIOTIN IMPORTANT?

Biotin contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism functioning of the nervous system and psychological function, and to the maintenance of normal skin and hair.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Biotin is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, formation of glucose, metabolism of certain amino acids and cholesterol. It is estimated that at least one third of women develop marginal biotin deficiency during pregnancy [1]

FOOD SOURCES

Suitable for a low salicylate, amine and glutamate diet

  • Egg yolks
  • Legumes especially Soy Beans
  • Brown Rice
  • Milk; Plain (if dairy tolerated)

If moderate salicylates tolerated

Sweet Potato (+S)

Produced in the gut by beneficial bacteria.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11815321 
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3679599/

The most abundant mineral in the body and, as such, one of the most important. Many other nutrients, including vitamin D, and some hormones, are important for it’s regulation.

WHY IS CALCIUM IMPORTANT?

Calcium contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism, blood clotting, muscle function and is needed for the maintenance of normal bones and teeth.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Calcium is important in building strong bones and teeth, regulating muscle contractions, including heartbeat; acting in cell signaling and nerve transmission and to help to ensure normal blood clotting [1].Calcium absorption becomes less efficient as we age. This may be due to reduced stomach acid, which is needed for its absorption.

FOOD SOURCES

Suitable for a low salicylate, amine and glutamate diet

  • Milk (Plain)
  • Yoghurt (Plain or Vanilla)
  • Cheese (soft cheeses e.g. cottage cheese and ricotta)
  • Butter
  • Calcium Enriched Rice Milk (Plain)
  • Calcium Enriched Soy Milk (Plain)
  • Canned fish when the soft, edible bones are eaten.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Calcium.aspx

Carnitine was originally labelled Vitamin BT,

WHY IS CARNITINE IMPORTANT?

Carnitine plays a critical role in energy production. It transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria so they can be oxidized (“burned”) to produce energy.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

95% of the body’s carnitine stores exist within skeletal muscle where it plays a central role in fat and carbohydrate oxidation, particularly during exercise.

FOOD SOURCES

  • Red meat (best source)
  • Poultry
  • Milk (Plain)
  • Icecream (Plain)

REFERENCES

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167488916300131

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Carnitine-HealthProfessional/

An essential trace mineral and is part of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) therefore, a vital molecule in regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

WHY IS CHROMIUM IMPORTANT?

Chromium contributes to the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Chromium helps to move blood sugar from the bloodstream into the cells to be used as energy [1,2].

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17109600
[2] http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/11/2741.full

A member of the ‘ubiquinone’ family, referring to the ubiquitous presence of these fat-soluble compounds in living organisms.

WHY IS CO-ENZYME Q10 IMPORTANT?

Coenzyme Q10 is an important vitamin-like substance required for the proper function of many organs and chemical reactions in the body. It helps provide energy to cells. Coenzyme Q10 also seems to have antioxidant activity.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Co-enzyme Q 10 plays a key role in the energy-generating processes, which take place in the cells in mitochondria [1]

FOOD SOURCES

  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Soybean and canola oils

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2779364 
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10416041

mportant in the formation of haemoglobin, our oxygen-carrying molecule.

WHY IS COPPER IMPORTANT?

Copper contributes to maintenance of normal connective tissues, energy-yielding metabolism and function of the immune system.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Copper supports the formation of collagen, an essential component of all connective tissue; increasing absorption of iron and plays a role in energy production[1].

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288165.php

A member of the B Vitamin family, the name derived from the latin word foliage-folium-because it’s found in green, leafy vegetables.

WHY IS FOLATE IMPORTANT?

Folate contributes to the normal function of the immune system, normal psychological function and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Folate is involved in the production of red blood cells and low levels can lead to anaemia. It also supports brain and neural functions. Women recommends a daily intake of 400 mcg for 3 months prior to conception and the first 12 weeks of pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects [1,2].  It can be obtained if necessary from supplements like Elavit.

FOOD SOURCES

Easily destroyed by light, heat, any type of cooking and prolonged storage, and lessened by most food processing/preparation.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9569395
[2] https://accp1.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jcph.616

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Inositol is involved in insulin signalling, nerve guidance, cell membrane potential maintenance, gene expression

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22296306

WHY IS IODINE IMPORTANT?

Iodine contributes to normal cognitive function, normal functioning of the nervous system, and to energy-yielding metabolism.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Iodine is important for producing the thyroid hormones thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, which regulate metabolism.[1,2] These hormones control the body’s metabolism and many other important functions.

FOOD SOURCES

  • Fish
  • Iodised Salt
  • Sea salt
  • Dairy products (Plain Milk, Plain Yoghurt and soft cheeses)

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.hsis.org/AZhealthsupplements/PDFs/Iodine.pdf 
[2] http://www.thyroidresearchjournal.com/content/5/1/16

WHY IS IRON IMPORTANT?

Iron contributes to normal cognitive function, energy-yielding metabolism, function of the immune system and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Iron is involved in haemoglobin function, the main oxygen-transporting molecule, hence symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue when stores are low [1].

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/lifestyle-guide-11/iron-supplements

In humans, they constitute a significant component of the microbiota at a number of body sites.

WHY IS LACTOBACILLUS IMPORTANT?

Beneficial probiotics maintain a healthy microbiome.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Lactobacillus is likely safe for most people, including babies and children for maintaining a healthy gut flora

FOOD SOURCES

  • Yoghurt (Plain)

REFERENCES

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924224499000333

t’s name comes from the Greek city, Magnesia, where large deposits of magnesium carbonate were found.

WHY IS MAGNESIUM IMPORTANT?

Magnesium contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system, psychological function, muscle function, energy-yielding metabolism a reduction of tiredness and fatigue, and to normal teeth and bones.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Magnesium plays a role in over 300-enzyme driven processes, including food metabolism and protein and fatty acid synthesis. About 65% is stored in the bones and teeth, with the bones acting as a significant reservoir [1-4].

FOOD SOURCES

  • Legumes
  • Cashews
  • Soymilk plain or Vanilla
  • Oats
  • Brown Rice
  • Fortified Plain Breakfast Cereals

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/286839.php
[2] http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/28/5/1175.full
[3] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002870398702248
[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775240/

Dietary manganese is a trace mineral found in tiny amounts in the human body, mostly in the bones, liver, pancreas, and kidneys.

WHY IS MANGANESE IMPORTANT?

Manganese contributes to the normal formation of connective tissue, energy-yielding metabolism and to the maintenance of normal bones.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Manganese is necessary for the production of several enzymes and antioxidants that fight free radical damage and aid in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. 

FOOD SOURCES

  • Oysters (fresh)
  • Legumes (like lentils, chickpeas and dry beans)
  • Brown Rice
  • Whole grains (such as wheat and oats)

REFERENCES

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034419

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Manganese-HealthProfessional/

Considered essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized by humans.

WHY IS OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS IMPORTANT?

DHA and EPA contribute to the normal function of the heart, and to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. DHA contributes to maintenance of normal brain function.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

In the past the ratio of omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids was 2:1-now in typical Western diets is almost 10:1 due to increased use of vegetable oils rich in omega-6 fatty acids and reduced fish consumption 

FOOD SOURCES

  • Flaxseed oil (+S)
  • Canola Oil
  • Fresh Salmon (+A)
  • Fresh Tuna (+A)

REFERENCES

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/

t’s name comes from the Greek ‘phosphoros’ meaning bringer of light.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Phosphorus binds with calcium to strengthen teeth and bones.[1]It is integral to the formation of all membranes, is essential in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and is used in multiple enzyme processes.[2]

FOOD SOURCES

  • Milk (Plain)
  • Meat
  • Beans
  • Lentils
  • Nuts
  • Whole grains

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.hsis.org/AZhealthsupplements/PDFs/Phosphorus.pdf 
[2] http://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf

WHY IS POTASSIUM IMPORTANT?

Potassium contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system and normal muscle function.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Potassium regulates electrical activity in the heart and is essential for maintaining the correct balance of fluids and electrolytes needed for cell function [1,2].

FOOD SOURCES

  • Meats
  • Poultry
  • Fish (fresh)
  • Milk Plain
  • Yoghurt Plain
  • Carrot (+S)
  • Potato
  • Sweet Potato (+S)
  • Banana (+AA)

Many fruits and vegetables are excellent sources, as are some legumes (e.g. soybeans) and potatoes.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/287212.php 
[2] http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f1378

It is widely acknowledged levels in soils are becoming depleted and levels are frequently low in Western diets.

WHY IS SELENIUM IMPORTANT?

Selenium contributes to normal spermatogenesis, function of the immune system and the maintenance of normal hair and nails.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Selenium is used to make enzymes called selenoproteins-there are 25-some work as antioxidants to protect against oxidative damage and support thyroid hormone metabolism [1]

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Selenium-HealthProfessional/

WHY IS VITAMIN A IMPORTANT?

Vitamin A contributes to normal iron metabolism, normal skin and vision and to the functioning of the immune system.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

The Department of Health warns women trying to get pregnant or during the first three months of pregnancy not to eat liver or take vitamin A supplements that contain more than 800 mcg, unless under medical supervision. Carotene pigments-the most well-known is beta carotene-can be converted into vitamin A in the body are termed pro-vitamin A [1].

FOOD SOURCES

  • Eggs
  • Full-fat milk
  • Sweet Potato (+S)
  • Carrot (+S)
  • Ricotta Cheese
  • Vanilla Icecream

REFERENCES

[1] https://nei.nih.gov/areds2/MediaQandA

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/

WHY IS VITAMIN B1 IMPORTANT?

Thiamine contributes to normal psychological function, functioning of the nervous system, function of the heart and to normal energy-yielding metabolism. It is also important in the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells, enzymatic processes and carbohydrate metabolism

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Thiamine is important to the health of the nervous system, especially in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. It supports a many functions and acts as an important coenzyme, also key in producing energy [1]

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2006/349513/

Our ability to absorb Vitamin B12 declines with age and it’s estimated that up to 15% of people over 60 are deficient [1]

WHY IS VITAMIN B12 IMPORTANT?

Vitamin B12 contributes to normal psychological function, functioning of the nervous and immune system, normal energy-yielding metabolism and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin B12 is important in the production of the genetic building blocks RNA and DNA and the red blood cells which transport oxygen around the body [1-4]Vitamin B12 works with vitamin B6 and folate to reduce levels of homocysteine [5] .

FOOD SOURCES

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Fortified breakfast cereals

Therefore, vegans may need to take supplementation. Also, produced in the intestines by the beneficial bacteria, but this can be reduced by antibiotics, stress or a high sugar diet.

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10448529 
[2] http://hsis.org/supplements.html 
[3] http://livescience.com/16238-vitamin-b12-spurs-dementia.html 
[4] http://www.nhs.uk/news/2010/09September/Pages/vitamin-B12-brain-shrink-dementia.aspx 
[5] https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/57/1/47/4715534

The term ‘flavin’ originates from Latin-‘flavus’ referring to the yellow colour of this vitamin.

WHY IS VITAMIN B2 IMPORTANT?

Riboflavin contributes to normal vision, functioning of the nervous system, normal energy-yielding metabolism and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue. Riboflavin may help with the management of migraine.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Riboflavin is involved in the formation of two coenzymes important for energy production. It helps efficient oxygen utilisation. and important for healthy skin, hair and nails [1]

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9484373

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219561#risks

WHY IS VITAMIN B3 IMPORTANT?

Niacin contributes to normal psychological function, functioning of the nervous system, normal energy-yielding metabolism, and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

It is essential for the formation of two important coenzymes that are involved in more than 50 metabolic reactions. Also for converting food into glucose, to produce energy; produce macromolecules, including fatty acids and cholesterol; DNA repair and stress responses [1].

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9604880

The name originates from the Greek word ‘pantos’, meaning ‘everywhere’, as it can be found throughout all living cells.

WHY IS VITAMIN B5 IMPORTANT?

Pantothenic acid contributes to normal mental performance, normal energy-yielding metabolism and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin B5 is important in coenzyme A (CoA) function, required to generate energy from food [1,2].

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6365107 
[2] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475317301187

WHY IS VITAMIN B6 IMPORTANT?

Vitamin B6 contributes to normal functioning of the nervous and immune systems, to normal psychological function, energy-yielding metabolism and to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin B6 is used in the correct functioning of over 60 enzymes, responsible for the creation of genetic material, and energy production. Restoration of vitamin B6 status suggests adequate B6 intake is important for optimal immune system function in older individuals [1-3]

FOOD SOURCES

Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods, including:

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9459468 
[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2021134 
[3] http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/46/4/659.abstract

WHY IS VITAMIN C IMPORTANT?

Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation for the normal function of bones, cartilage, gums, skin and teeth. Vitamin C also contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue maintains the normal function of the immune system during and after intense physical exercise, and to energy-yielding metabolism.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin C is water soluble, and the body does not store it. To maintain adequate levels of vitamin C, humans need a daily intake of food that contains it. Vitamin C plays an important role in a number of bodily functions including the production of collagen, L-carnitine, and some neurotransmitters. It helps metabolize proteins and has an antioxidant activity. Collagen, which vitamin C helps produce, is the main component of connective tissue and the most abundant protein in mammals. Between 1 and 2% of muscle tissue is The role of vitamin C as an antioxidant also helps repair tissue and reduce damage from inflammation and oxidation. People with adequate levels of vitamin C are thought to be better able to fight off infections compared to people with vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C may also help prevent acute respiratory infections, especially in people with malnutrition and those who are physically stressed (1-5). 

FOOD SOURCES

Potato1 large vegetable72.780.80%
Brussels sprouts1 cup, raw74.879.80%
Green Peas (mod Glutamate)½ Cup 3033.33%
Swede/Rutabaga1 Cup 4044.44%
Cabbage1 Cup Shredded25.628.44%
Parsley1 tablespoon 5.15.67%

REFERENCES

[1] https://nei.nih.gov/areds2/PatientFAQ 
[2] http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Vitamin-C.aspx
[3] https://nei.nih.gov/areds2/PatientFAQ
[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11896774
[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12823436

Our skin produces Vitamin D in response to sunshine. But from October to April, the UK doesn’t get enough UVB radiation to make Vitamin D.  One study found 90% of older people in Europe had inadequate Vitamin D intakes [1].

WHY IS VITAMIN D IMPORTANT?

Vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of normal muscle function, bones, teeth and blood calcium levels. It also contributes to the maintenance of normal muscle function and the immune system function

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Aging is known to diminish the skin’s capacity to produce vitamin D. Fat soluble, it is stored in fatty tissue, so being overweight or obese, reduces availability. It also supports the immune system and uptake of calcium and phosphorus which are essential for healthy bones and teeth [1-3]

FOOD SOURCES

  • Egg yolks
  • Milk and Yoghurt (Plain)
  • Fortified Cereals (Plain)
  • Fortified Rice Milk

Also known as the ‘sunshine vitamin’ as it is produced in the skin by the presence of sunlight.

REFERENCES

[1] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jhn.12335/abstract
[2] http://www.hsis.org/factsheets/vitd.html 
[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2997282

WHY IS VITAMIN E IMPORTANT?

Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin E is actually a fat-soluble vitamin family of compounds-the tocopherols, which work synergistically with other antioxidants including vitamin C, beta-carotene, glutathione, and selenium. its antioxidant role which counters the free radicals responsible for cell damage [1].

FOOD SOURCES

  • Sunflower Oil
  • Safflower Oil
  • Canola Oil
  • Asparagus (+S)
  • Butternut Squash (+S)
  • Sweet Potato (+S)
  • Wholemeal bread
  • Eggs

REFERENCES

[1] http://www.hsis.org/factsheets/vite.html

WHY IS VITAMIN K IMPORTANT?

Vitamin K contributes to normal blood clotting and to the maintenance of normal bones.

FUNCTION IN THE BODY

Vitamin K is involved in the formation of several proteins which regulate blood clotting.[1]

FOOD SOURCES

REFERENCES

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002406.htm

Zinc is a nutrient that people need to stay healthy. Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. It helps the immune system fight off invading bacteria and viruses. The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA, the genetic material in all cells

FOOD SOURCES

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-Consumer/

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